The pancreas is part of the gastrointestinal tract and at the same time is the mixed secretion gland. It responds to the entry of food into the human digestive system by producing enzymes that are secreted in the duodenum and help break down food in the intestines. On the other hand, the gland produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, which are released into the bloodstream and maintain normal blood glucose levels.
What is pancreatitis and its forms?
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas, in which the gland tissue becomes inflamed, interrupting the process of production and entry of necessary enzymes into the intestines. The swollen gland increases in size, its internal ducts narrow, which does not allow digestive juices to pass into the duodenum. The enzymes that remain in the gland begin, as it were, to break down the gland itself, leading to sad consequences.
There is an acute form of pancreatitis, which is caused by a violation of diet or inflammatory diseases in the body and does not last long with proper treatment. If the action of irritants is prolonged or frequent, chronic pancreatitis occurs, which can develop after an acute process.
The approach to the treatment of pancreatitis is complex, and a special diet plays an important role in it, without which the effectiveness of treatment is extremely low.
Principles of the diet for pancreatitis
The principles of the diet for acute pancreatitis are that the first 3 days are generally recommended to observe hunger. During this time, the necessary nutrition is given by intravenous infusion without intestinal irritation. Food that enters the intestines always leads to an increase in the production of digestive enzymes, and in acute inflammation it is important to reduce this activity as much as possible, after a few days the diet is gradually expanded. First, only ordinary water, still mineral water is sometimes allowed, better alkaline and weak tea.
Then, for chronic pancreatitis from day 3 and for acute pancreatitis after day 5, the following positions are used:
- the frequency of nutrition at least 5 times a day for the uniform release of enzymes without a pronounced load and reduce inflammation;
- the amount of fats and carbohydrates decreases as much as possible towards an increase in protein products;
- the volume of food at one time is not more than 150-200 ml;
- use hot food at 20-60 degrees, chopped or pureed;
- chew your food well and take your time;
- do not drink during meals, limit salt to 4-5 grams per day;
- exclude foods that cause flatulence;
- for the purpose of saving chemicals, you should not use hot spices or seasonings;
- use only cooked or baked foods without fried, smoked or canned ingredients.
Characteristics of the diet for pancreatitis
It is important to remember that the diet for pancreatic pancreatitis must be constantly observed, otherwise the body will react with repeated inflammation, and the consequences will be negative. In acute pancreatitis, the condition is very serious and death is not excluded.
In the context of an increase in the proportion of protein products in the diet, most of them should be animals in the form of turkey, chicken or young veal. Carbohydrates should be a little more than 300 grams per day with the restriction of common sugar or jam, fats in a minimal amount, protein products make up more than half of the diet.
Foods allowed and prohibited in the diet for gastric pancreatitis
There are many foods allowed in the diet for gastric pancreatitis, so the diet can be made as varied as possible:
- rabbit, beef and poultry (lean) boiled or baked, boiled tongue;
- lean fish, such as hake or pollock, boiled, baked or in souffle form;
- cereals are different, preferably rice or oats in cereals, soups or stews;
- bread after drying in the oven, baked cookies, cooked pasta;
- diluted low-fat dairy and lactic acid products as an addition to the main products or curd casserole, diet cheese and skimmed milk cottage cheese;
- boiled or baked vegetables: potatoes and squash, beets or carrots, fresh squash;
- eggs (protein only) in omelets or stews, vegetable oil in moderation;
- Ripe unsweetened or baked fruits, jelly or berry puree;
- soft drinks, diluted juices, rosehip fruit drinks.
The following foods are prohibited in a diet with exacerbation of pancreatitis:
- fried or roasted meats, all offal; lamb or goose meat, bacon and smoked meat, canned stew;
- pickled seafood dishes, rich fish broths or preserves;
- dishes cooked with legumes and rich broths;
- fresh bread, cakes, fried pies;
- full-fat sour cream, cream, large amounts of unsweetened milk;
- Garlic, mushrooms and radish are strictly prohibited (limit turnips and fresh vegetables);
- egg yolks and fresh natural butter;
- lots of sweet fresh fruits, cabbage and sorrel;
- coffee, strong tea, concentrated lemonades and any carbonated drink, alcohol of any strength or energy;
- ice cream, buttercream cakes, chocolate, cakes;
- hot spices, marinades, sausages and smoked meats.
Dietary contraindications for pancreatitis
Taking into account the peculiarities of the diet for gastric pancreatitis, there are contraindications.
They refer to patients with kidney disease or protein metabolism:
- with pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis with decompensation of the process;
- patients with urolithiasis;
- in acute or chronic renal failure;
- in case of gout and disorders of purine metabolism;
- in the presence of multiple myeloma;
- with hormonal imbalance or thyroid problems;
- with precancerous underlying diseases, since excess protein is dangerous for malignancy;
- with severe obesity or diabetes mellitus, especially with diabetic nephropathy, that is, kidney damage.
Due to an increase in the amount of protein products in the diet, the load on the kidneys increases and in the presence of chronic diseases, their work is interrupted.
Diet for pancreatitis: menu of the week
Consider a sample diet menu for one week for acute or chronic pancreatitis.
- Breakfast.Oatmeal porridge in ground buckwheat water, boiled chicken breast. Curd pudding, weak tea.
- Lunch.Fruit puree, smoothie in blender, sponge cakes.
- Lunch.Rice grain puree soup, steamed veal chops, apricot jelly.
- Snack.Carrot casserole with tea.
- Dinner.Fish paste with oats. Applesauce.
- Before going to bed.Currant juice.
- Breakfast.Mashed potatoes with mashed meat. Cookies, fruit tea.
- Lunch.Protein omelette, carrot puree.
- Lunch.Ground buckwheat soup with rabbit meatballs. Zucchini casserole, weak tea.
- Snack.Beet puree salad, fruit juice with breadcrumbs.
- Dinner.Steam turkey cutlets with pureed rice porridge. Kissel of apples.
- Before going to bed.Rosehip fruit drink.
- Breakfast.Oatmeal porridge without sugar. Carrot casserole with tea.
- Lunch.Baked apples with croutons and apricot juice.
- Lunch.Fish hake soup, mashed potatoes with sour cream. Pear gelatin with croutons.
- Snack.Zucchini casserole with tea and cookies.
- Dinner.Steamed rabbit cutlets with pureed buckwheat porridge. Compote of currants.
- Before going to bed.A glass of kefir.
- Breakfast.Rice pudding with boiled beef. Tea with cookies.
- Lunch.Boiled beet salad with yogurt and crackers.
- Lunch.Soup over a mild chicken broth with buckwheat. Vegetable dumplings, fruit jelly.
- Snack.Cottage cheese with skimmed sour cream, tea with marshmallows.
- Dinner.Vegetable casserole with pollock. Compote of dried fruits.
- Before going to bed.Apple fruit drink.
- Breakfast.Chopped oatmeal porridge with steamed veal chops. Fruit pudding tea.
- Lunch.Steamed fish meatballs, apple jelly.
- Lunch.Rabbit soup with boiled meat. Pumpkin casserole with sour cream, unsweetened tea.
- Snack.Protein omelette with apple juice.
- Dinner.Turkey roll and vegetable stew. Tea with cookies.
- Before going to bed.Low fat fermented baked milk.
- Breakfast.Boiled pasta with chicken pate. Unsweetened tea.
- Lunch.Pumpkin porridge with unsweetened yogurt.
- Lunch.Pumpkin and beef puree soup. Zucchini stew and blueberry jelly.
- Snack.Applesauce, a cup of kefir.
- Dinner.Steamed fish cakes with oats. Tea with cookies.
- Before going to bed.Apricot compote.
- Breakfast.Beef and vegetable casserole. Ryazhenka with cookies.
- Lunch.Curd pudding and fruit puree.
- Lunch.Pumpkin and potato puree soup. Chicken meatballs with oatmeal. Fresh fruit compote.
- Snack.Carrot pudding with unsweetened tea.
- Dinner.Hake and zucchini casserole. Apple jelly.
- Before going to bed.Freshly baked fermented milk.
It should be remembered when preparing the menu and preparing the food that the food must be fresh and the preparation methods must be boiling or baking. It is not desirable to combine different proteins at once, and small portions are recommended to reduce the load on the pancreas.
Diet for Pancreatitis: Nutritionist Reviews
Nutritionist reviews of diet for pancreatitis are as follows. Its main details are aimed at reducing the nutritional load on the gland and reducing the production of digestive juice, which promotes inflammation. In addition to these effects, such a diet prevents diseases of the liver and biliary tract, since it normalizes the frequency of bile secretion in the intestines. However, in the context of restrictions, a sufficient amount of vitamins in the diet should be remembered to avoid vitamin deficiency.
With the lack of own enzymes in the patient's body, the absorption of nutrients from food decreases. To correct the absorption of nutrients, drugs containing the necessary enzymes are used in granular or encapsulated form. The special medicinal capsules promote the action of enzymes at a specific location in the digestive system for maximum effect.
In acute pancreatitis, it is important to chop food to the maximum, but in chronic pancreatitis, to maintain the physiological work of the digestive tract, food should not be finely cut or cleaned from ready-made food, although heat treatment shouldmade without frying or grilling. The more balanced the diet, the less likely adverse results will be. In acute pancreatitis, the diet should be followed for at least 2-3 months; in chronic disease, it is desirable for life.